08) CONFLICTING PRESIDENTS: Are there many conflicting opinions with diversity of viewpoint among the previous presidents of the Church on the theory of organic evolution? Have some spoken for, some against and others in between?

Commentary

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The first question that must be asked is, “Does it really matter what the Presidents of the Church have taught in the past?” Some feel to the contrary. They believe that the doctrine of the Church of Jesus Christ is evolving; that the former Presidents of the Church got some things right, but when it comes to science or intellectual matters, they were products of their time. The Prophet Joseph Smith answered this question powerfully as it pertained to himself. Please see the comments in the Introduction to this FAQ compilation. The Prophet taught that there were no errors in the revelations that he had taught. President Ezra Taft Benson added additional insight into the inspiration and revelation granted to those that reach the station of President of the Church.

“Sometimes, from behind the pulpit, in our classrooms, in our council meetings, and in our Church publications, we hear, read, or witness things that do not square with the truth. . . . Now, do not let this serve as an excuse for your own wrongdoing. The Lord is letting the wheat and the tares mature before He fully purges the Church. He is also testing you to see if you will be misled. The devil is trying to deceive the very elect.

Let me give you a crucial key to help you avoid being deceived. It is this-learn to keep your eye on the prophet. He is the Lord’s mouthpiece and the only man who can speak for the Lord today. Let his inspired counsel take precedence. Let his inspired words be a basis for evaluating the counsel of all lesser authorities. Then live close to the Spirit so you may know the truth of all things.” 1

We live in deceptive times. When the Prophet Moroni saw our day he testified of the peril of false doctrines and false teachers in our day.

O ye pollutions, ye hypocrites, ye teachers, who sell yourselves for that which will canker, why have ye polluted the holy church of God? Why are ye ashamed to take upon you the name of Christ? Why do ye not think that greater is the value of an endless happiness than that misery which never dies—because of the praise of the world? 2

Nephi added a similar comment.

. . . they have all gone astray save it be a few, who are the humble followers of Christ; nevertheless, they are led, that in many instances they do err because they are taught by the precepts of men. 3

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As nearly everyone appears to wander after the philosophies of the word, we can avoid deception by heeding and supporting the words of the Prophets of God both ancient and modern. Can the Prophets have their own opinions on things? Sure. But when they speak repeatedly and in unison can there be any doubt to those who have the Spirit of God that their words are inspired? Realize that nearly every President of the Church has either spoken directly in opposition to Darwin and his philosophies or has taught doctrines that clearly contradict the concepts of Darwinian Evolution. This compilation contains hundreds of pages of such statements. While there are hundreds of pages of statements against Darwinian Evolution, there has never been one clear statement made in support. This is a firm testimony to many of the inspiration that attends these men. While they come from different backgrounds, with varying talents and abilities, living over a period of almost two hundred years, they are in harmony on this vital subject. This is a phenomenal testimony to the truth of this work and the unity that exists among those that are in tune with the Spirit of God.

In addition to the many hundreds of statements contained in this FAQ compilation here is an additional overview reference of the statements made by Presidents of the Church. Note that no President of the Church has ever in there long lives made any clear supportive statements for Darwinian evolution. Again, this is a powerful testimony to the strength that comes from living in tune with the Spirit of God.

Prophetic Statements

Joseph Smith

God has made certain decrees which are fixed and immovable; for instance—God set the sun, the moon and the stars in the heavens, and gave them their laws conditions and bounds, which they cannot pass, except by his commandments; they all move in perfect harmony in their sphere and order, and are as lights, wonders, and signs unto us. The sea also has its bounds which it cannot pass. God has set many signs on the earth, as well as in the heavens; for instance, the oak of the forest, the fruit of the tree, the herb of the field—all bear a sign that seed hath been planted there; for it is a decree of the Lord that every tree, plant, and herb bearing seed should bring forth of its kind, and cannot come forth after any other law or principle. 4

Brigham Young

“Numerous are the scriptures which I might bring to bear upon the subject of the personality of God. I shall not take time to quote them on this occasion, but will content myself by quoting two passages in the 1st chapter of Genesis, 26th and 27th verses. ‘And God said, let us make man in our image, after our likeness. . . . So God created man in his own image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them.’ I believe that the declaration made in these two scriptures is literally true. God has made His children like Himself to stand erect, and has endowed them with intelligence and power and dominion over all His works and given them the same attributes which He Himself possesses. He created man, as we create our children; for there is no other process of creation in heaven, on the earth, in the earth, or under the earth, or in all the eternities, that is, that were, or that ever will be.” 5

“Thus you may continue and trace the human family back to Adam and Eve, and ask, “are we of the same species with Adam and Eve?” Yes, every person acknowledges this; this comes within the scope of our understanding. But when we arrive at that point, a veil is dropt, and our knowledge is cut off. Were it not so, you could trace back your history to the Father of our spirits in the eternal world. He is a being of the species as ourselves; He lives as we do, except the difference that we are earthly, and He is heavenly. He has been earthly, and is of precisely the same species of being that we are.” 6

John Taylor

“All the works of God connected with the world which we inhabit, and with all other worlds, are strictly governed by law…the animal and vegetable creations are governed by certain laws, and are composed of certain elements peculiar to themselves. This applies to man, to the beasts, fowls, fish and creeping things, to the insects and to all animated nature; each one possessing its own distinctive features, each requiring a specific sustenance, each having an organism and faculties governed by prescribed laws to perpetuate its own kind. So accurate is the formation of the various living creatures that an intelligent student of nature can tell by any particular bone of the skeleton of an animal to what class or order it belongs.

These principles do not change, as represented by evolutionists of the Darwinian school, but the primitive organisms of all living beings exist in the same form as when they first received their impress from their Maker. There are, indeed, some very slight exceptions, as for instance, the ass may mix with the mare and produce the mule; but there it ends, the violation of the laws of procreation receives a check, and its operations can go no further. Similar compounds may possibly be made by experimentalists in the vegetable and mineral kingdoms, but the original elements remain the same. Yet this is not the normal, but an abnormal condition with them, as with animals, birds, etc.; and if we take man, he is said to have been made in the image of God, for the simple reason that he is a son of God; and being His son, he is, of course, His offspring, an emanation from God, in whose likeness, we are told, he is made. He did not originate from a chaotic mass of matter, moving or inert, but came forth possessing, in an embryotic state, all the faculties and powers of a God. And when he shall be perfected, and have progressed to maturity, he will be like his Father—a God; being indeed His offspring. As the horse, the ox, the sheep, and every living creature, including man, propagates its own species and perpetuates its own kind, so does God perpetuate His.” 7

Lorenzo Snow

The religion we have received is not a chimera. It is not something that has been devised by the cunning of man, but it is something that has been revealed by the Almighty. It is a fact. It is something that truly exists. It is something that is tangible. It is some thing that can be laid hold of by the minds of the Latter-day Saints. It is something that can be directly understood, and be fully comprehended, so that there can be no doubt in the mind of any Latter-day Saint in regard to the nature and character of the ultimate outcome of the course that he proposes to pursue in complying with the demands of the Gospel he has received. But those demands are of a nature that perhaps would be almost appalling to the minds of individuals that were darkened, that had no light or understanding in regard to the outcome that is expected to be experienced by the Latter-day Saints, inasmuch as they continue faithful in adhering to the principles which they have espoused.

These demands are not of a nature that have no parallel in the history of the people of God. They were required in every age and period when God called a people to serve him, and to receive his laws. They were required in the days of Israel, in the beginning of that people. They were required of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. They were required of Moses, and of the people that he led from Egyptian bondage. They were required by all the prophets that existed from the days of Adam to the present period of time. They were required by the apostles that received their commission by the laying on of the hands of Jesus Christ, the Son of the living God, and by the adherents of the religion that the apostles proclaimed and taught to the people, in their day and no man or set of men or class of people from the day of Adam to the present time, could comply with these requirements, except the people of God, as they were endowed with power from on high, which could proceed only from the Lord our God. And it would be simply foolish indeed to expect the Latter-day Saints in these days to comply with the celestial law, with the law that proceeds from God, and with his designs to elevate the people into his presence, except they were sustained by a supernatural power. 8

Joseph F. Smith

“God the Father and Jesus Christ the Son…cannot be any other than themselves. They cannot be changed; they are from everlasting to everlasting, eternally the same; so it will be with us. We will progress and develop and grow in wisdom and understanding, but our identity can never change. We did not spring from spawn. Our spirits existed from the beginning, have existed always, and will continue forever. We did not pass through the ordeals of embodiment in the lesser animals in order to reach the perfection to which we have attained in manhood and womanhood, in the image and likeness of God. God was and is our Father, and his children were begotten in the flesh of his own image and likeness, male and female. There may have been times when they did not possess the same intelligence that they possessed at other times. There are periods in the history of the world when men have dwindled into ignorance and barbarism, and then there were other times when they have grown in intelligence, developed in understanding, enlarged in spirit and comprehension, approaching nearer to the condition and likeness of their Father and God.” 9

Note: The following quote may or may not have come from President Joseph F. Smith directly, but it was published in the Priesthood manual when he was President of the Church. Also, it closely aligns with the First Presidency pronouncement given a year earlier:

“Man has descended from God: In fact, he is of the same race as the Gods. His descent has not been from a lower form of life, but from the Highest Form of Life; in other words, man is, in the most literal sense, a child of God. This is not only true of the spirit of man, but of his body also.” 10

George Albert Smith

Note: This first quote was given by President Smith at the General Conference in October 1925. This immediately followed the Scopes Trial and President Smith’s remarks accompanied the things President Heber J. Grant said in the same conference about William Jennings Bryan. Here is what President Smith taught:

“Man did not come from a lower order of life. I am grateful that in the midst of the confusion of our Father’s children there has been given to the members of this great organization a sure knowledge of the origin of man, that we came from the spirit world where our spirits were begotten by our Father in Heaven, that he formed our first parents from the dust of the earth, and that their spirits were placed in their bodies, and that man came, not as some have believed, not as some have preferred to believe, from some of the lower walks of life, but our ancestors were those beings who lived in the courts of heaven. We came not from some menial order of life, but our ancestor is God our Heavenly Father. I am grateful that we are not laboring under a handicap such as I feel that some men are who feel that they have grown up and evolved from some unknown condition; but, on the contrary, standing as we do, facing the problems of life, believing as we do that we were first created in the image of God.” 11 12

“Man is the offspring of God. The Latter-day Saints are believers in the words contained in the Holy Scriptures. We believe that God created the heavens and the earth; and the same God that created the heavens and the earth declared that he made man in his own image; male and female created he them. No matter if scientists and great men of the world shall proclaim that we have evolved from the lower order of animals, the witness of the Spirit to you, my brethren and sisters, is that you are the offspring of the Lord, that the spirits which inhabit your bodies are immortal, and that in due time, if you are faithful, you will go back to the presence of that God who gave you life.” 13

“I said to a man one day, ‘You can find out all about your ancestors if you will go with me to the Genealogical Library.’ He said, ‘I don’t want to know anything about them.’ I wouldn’t either if I thought my ancestors could be traced back to an orangutan or a baboon. But like William Jennings Bryan [stated], ‘Those who have any pride in that kind of ancestry will not connect me with their family tree.” 14

. . . and so he covered the earth with a great flood, gathering just a little handful of people to re-people the earth . . . 15

David O. McKay

The second thing from which the world needs to be saved is ignorance of its relationship to God. In their lack of knowledge of the existence of Deity, many men agnostically say, “I don’t know.” Others bombastically say, “There is no God; life came to earth by chance and man was developed through evolutionary processes of ten or fifteen millions or billions, of years.” Paul, James, Cephas, John, and Joseph Smith, and a host of others knew, and so have testified, that we are sons and daughters of our Father in heaven. He is our God, and Jesus Christ came to the world to prove that great truth. From the very beginning He established our relationship with Deity; namely, that we are sons and daughters of God.

Oh, what that truth means to young people, particularly, who, in moments of discouragement, wonder what they are going to do and how they are going to live, to be inspired with the idea that they are truly of divine origin! Being of divine heritage, there is no limit to their achievement. 16

“Teach students that…in all creations only human beings can sense the possibility of a life that rises above the animal plane of existence. Boys, sense that and never as a child of God fall below that high plane of human existence. The stern fact of life is that animals, as other living things, can grow and produce their kind only in accordance with fixed laws of nature and the divine command, “Let the earth bring forth the living creatures after his kind, cattle and creeping things, and the beast of the earth after his kind.” (Genesis 1:24) … To man, however, there is given a special endowment, not bestowed upon any other living thing…Only to the human being did the Creator say, “Thou mayest choose for thyself, for it is given unto thee.”(Moses 3:17). As God desired men to become as he, it was necessary that he should first make them free.” 17

Joseph Fielding Smith

Note: President Joseph Fielding Smith was opposed to organic evolution and vocalized such opposition more than any other prophet of this dispensation. In fact, President Smith wrote an entire book that teaches against the theory, and he was asked to do so by members of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles. Obviously, the entire book is too long to include here. This book, entitled Man, His Origin and Destiny, was highly recommended by President Ezra Taft Benson.

The following are only a few of President Smith’s many teachings that denounce the false theory of organic evolution.

#1:

“GOD: FIRST OF THE HUMAN FAMILY. Let me comment first upon the expression that God is the “first of the human family.” This same doctrine was taught by Joseph Smith. It is a fundamental doctrine of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. According to the teachings of Joseph Smith, he beheld the Father and the Son in his glorious vision, and he taught that each had a body of flesh and bones. He also taught that, literally, God is our Father; that men are of the same race—the race called humans; and that God, the Progenitor, or Creator, is the Father of the human race. “In the image of his own body, male and female, created he them, and blessed them, and called their name Adam, in the day when they were created and became living souls in the land upon the footstool of God. It is a doctrine common to the Latter-day Saints, that God, the Great Elohim, is the First, or Creator, of the human family.” 18

#2:

“NO DEATH ON EARTH BEFORE FALL. The Lord pronounced the earth good when it was finished. Everything upon its face was called good. There was no death in the earth before the fall of Adam. I do not care what the scientists say in regard to dinosaurs and other creatures upon the earth millions of years ago, that lived and died and fought and struggled for existence. When the earth was created and was declared good, peace was upon its face among all its creatures. Strife and wickedness were not found here, neither was there any corruption.” 19

#3:

“If death was always here, then Adam did not bring it, and he could not be punished for it. If Adam did not fall, there was no Christ, because the atonement of Jesus Christ is based on the fall of Adam. And so we face these problems. Fall of Adam and Evea-Smith, Joseph FieldingTPIf there is anybody here that believes that death has always been going on, and that sin was always here, he will have a difficult time to explain Adam and the fall, or the atonement. You see from these writings what a dreadful state these men get in when they do not believe in the fall and the introduction of sin into the world.” 20

#5:

“THEORY OF EVOLUTION DENIES CHRIST. Then Adam, and by that I mean the first man, was not capable of sin. He could not transgress, and by doing so bring death into the world; for, according to this theory, death had always been in the world. If, therefore, there was no fall, there was no need of an atonement, hence the coming into the world of the Son of God as the Savior of the world is a contradiction, a thing impossible. Are you prepared to believe such a thing as that? Do you believe that the first man was a savage? That he lacked in the power of intelligence? That he has been on the constant road of progression? These are the teachings of such theorists.” 21

#6:

“CANNOT BELIEVE BOTH GOSPEL AND EVOLUTION. I say most emphatically, you cannot believe in this theory of the origin of man, and at the same time accept the plan of salvation as set forth by the Lord our God. You must choose the one and reject the other, for they are in direct conflict and there is a gulf separating them which is so great that it cannot be bridged, no matter how much one may try to do so. If IfIyou believe in the doctrine of the evolutionist, then you must accept the view that man has evolved through countless ages from the very lowest forms of life up through various stages of animal life, finally into the human form. The first man, according to this hypothesis known as the “cave man,” was a creature absolutely ignorant and devoid of any marked intelligence over the beasts of the field.” 22

#7:

“These theories [of organic evolution] taught in our schools should be taught only as theories for they can be nothing more. Unfortunately as previously said, they are presented by many instructors as though they were well established facts, with a positive assurance that belongs only to established truth. Between belief in God and the fact that he has directed and does direct his servants by revelation, vision, and personal visitation, and the theories based on organic evolution, there is a gulf that can never be bridged. These theories are man-made deductions but the testimony of the prophets are actual facts, attested by sufficient witnesses, according to the decree of the Almighty, and thus it becomes incumbent upon every soul unto whom these testimonies come to carefully weigh them in the spirit of humility and prayer by which the knowledge of the truth may be received, and then accepted.” 23

#8:

“IF EVOLUTION IS TRUE, THE CHURCH IS FALSE. If life began on the earth, as advocated by Darwin, Huxley, Haeckel (who has been caught openhanded perpetrating a fraud), and others of this school, whether by chance or by some designing hand, then the doctrines of the Church are false. Then there was no Garden of Eden, no Adam and Eve, and no fall. If there was no fall; if death did not come into the world as the scriptures declared that it did—and to be consistent, if you are an evolutionist, this view you must assume—then there was no need for a redemption, and Jesus Christ is not the Son of God, and he did not die for the transgression of Adam, nor for the sins of the world. Then there has been no resurrection from the dead! Consistently, logically, there is no other view, no alternative that can be taken. Now, my brethren and sisters, are you prepared to take this view?” 24

#9:

“EVOLUTIONISTS REJECT FATHERHOOD OF GOD. The modern world is fulfilling the scriptures which say that in the last days men would be “ever learning, and never able to come to the knowledge of the truth.” Today the world has discarded the great truth concerning the Fatherhood of God and has turned to fables. It has adopted and is promulgating in textbooks and schools the debasing doctrine that man is not the offspring of God, but a natural development through countless ages from the lowest forms of physical life to his present form and intelligence. Such a doctrine is an insult to our Father in whose Image we were created, and yet in this teaching vast multitudes seem to glory. Paul saw our day and by prophetic vision declared that such conditions would prevail in this dispensation and the Lord should ‘send them strong delusion, that they should believe a lie: That they all might be damned who believe not the truth, but had pleasure in unrighteousness’.” 25

#10:

“These modernists, who are instructing and leading astray the people of this and other lands, reject the doctrine of the atonement of Christ; they reject the resurrection of the Son of God and consequently the resurrection of all mankind. They have discarded entirely the miracles of the scriptures and make light of the saving ordinances of the gospel which the Lord declared to be so essential to our salvation; and in the stead thereof they have accepted the theories and notions advanced by modern scientists which are evidently false, and have taken to their hearts and hugged to their bosoms the falsehoods set forth in the theories of evolution and of higher criticism of the scriptures. And why have they done this thing? Because the simple truth, which is understood by the Spirit of God and not understood and comprehended by the spirit of man, does not appeal to their reason.” 26

#11:

“Darwin…lost his religion when he lost confidence in [William] Paley’s evidences. He says: “The old argument from design in Nature, as given by Paley, which formerly seemed to me so conclusive, fails now that the law of natural selection has been discovered. We can no longer argue that, for instance, the beautiful hinge of a bivalve shell must have been made by an intelligent being, like the hinge of a door by man.” “At the present day,” he continues, “the most usual argument for the existence of an intelligent God is drawn from the deep inward conviction and feeling which are experienced by most persons.” Formerly he was led by feelings such as those just referred to, to the firm conviction of the existence of God and of the immortality of the soul. The grandeur of the Brazilian forest, he says, used to inspire him with religious awe. “But now the grandest scenes would not cause any such convictions and feelings to arise in my mind. It may be truly said that I am like a man who has become color-blind.” In another passage he mentions the fact that his love for poetry has gradually disappeared—a proof of the withering effect which continual scientific investigation may exert upon the soul! His state was, however, evidently preconditioned by the original intellectualistic bent of his religious convictions, formed by his early instruction. He has a feeling of having been cheated by false theories and proofs, and therefore looks with distrust upon the entire church. This is an every-day occurrence. Consequently it is a vital question for the church to assume a proper attitude towards science. The mutual distrust existing between science and the church is fatal to her. 27 The quotations in relation to the loss of faith of Charles Darwin is taken from the book, Charles Darwin’s Life, by his son, Francis Darwin, page 63. One who follows the theories of Darwin, will eventually, like Darwin, lose all faith in God the Eternal Creator. A person cannot believe that bivalve shells come by chance and hinges of a door have to come by the act of an intelligent being, and be sound in his thinking. Verily, those who insistently follow the evolutionary theories, cannot at the same time accept and worship an intelligent anthropomorphic God!” 28

#12:

“Question asked of Joseph Fielding Smith: “Since reading your book, Man: His Origin, and Destiny, I have been troubled by your difference in view of organic evolution and the age of man and the teachings of some of our most outstanding scientists who maintain that scientific evidence prove the earth and man to be much older than you claim. Your statements are contrary to what I have been taught and believe.”

President Smith’s Answer: If what I have written is in criticism of the present theories in relation to organic evolution and the age of man upon the earth, in which you believe, then I can readily see why you disagree with what I have taught. I will state frankly and positively that I am opposed to the present biological theories and the doctrine that man has been on the earth for millions of years. I am opposed to the present teachings in relation to the age of the earth which declare that the earth is millions of years old. Some modern scientists even claim that it is a billion years old. Naturally, since I believe in modern revelation, I cannot accept these so-called scientific teachings, for I believe them to be in conflict with the simple and direct word of the Lord that has come to us by divine revelation.” 29

#13:

“EVOLUTIONARY THEORY FALSE. This idea that everything commenced from a small beginning, from the scum upon the surface of the sea, and has gradually developed until all forms of life, the beasts of the field, the fowls of the air, the fishes of the sea, and the plants upon the face of the earth, have all sprung from that one source, is a falsehood absolutely. There is no truth in it, for God has given us his word by which we may know, and all who are led by the Spirit of God can understand through that Holy Spirit, the truth of these things.” 30

#14:

“Organic evolution is Satan’s chief weapon in this dispensation in his attempt to destroy the divine mission of Jesus Christ. It is a contemptible plot against faith in God and to destroy the effective belief in the divine atonement of our Redeemer through which men may be saved from their sins and find place in the Kingdom of God. There is not and cannot be any compromise between the Gospel of Jesus Christ and the theories of evolution. Were evolution true, there could be no remission of sin.” 31

#15:

Again, as President of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, President Joseph Fielding Smith said:

“As I ponder the principles of the gospel, I am struck forcibly by the uniform manner in which I and all the Brethren have taught them over the years.  The truths of the gospel are everlastingly the same. Like God himself, they are the same yesterday, today and forever.  What I have taught and written in the past I would teach and write again under the same circumstances.

And what I say of myself should be true for all the Brethren and for all the elders of the Church.  We are all called to preach the gospel, to be ministers of Christ, to raise the warning voice, and to “teach one another the doctrine of the kingdom.” 32

Harold B. Lee

President Harold B. Lee was a strong supporter of Joseph Fielding Smith’s book Man, His Origin and Destiny. President Lee also taught the following in a First Presidency Message as the President of the Church:

#1:

“I was somewhat sorrowed recently to hear someone, a sister who comes from a church family, ask, “What about the pre-Adamic people?” Here was someone who I thought was fully grounded in the faith. I asked, “What about the pre-Adamic people?” She replied, “Well, aren’t there evidences that people preceded the Adamic period of the earth?” I said, “Have you forgotten the scripture that says, ‘And I, the Lord God, formed man from the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul, the first flesh upon the earth, the first man also….’ “(Moses 3:7). I asked, “Do you believe that?” She wondered about the creation because she had read the theories of the scientists, and the question that she was really asking was: How do you reconcile science with religion? The answer must be, If science is not true, you cannot reconcile truth with error.” 33

#2:

“We [must] measure every teaching to be found in the world of book learning by the teachings of revealed truth, as contained in the gospel of Jesus Christ. If we find in a school text claims that contradict the word of the Lord as pertaining to the creation of the world, the origin of man, or the determination of what is right or wrong in the conduct of human souls, we may be certain that such teachings are but the theories of men.” 34

#3:

This statement on the Fall was placed in the Teachings of Presidents of the Church: Harold B. Lee, manual in 2000:

Adam and Eve … exercised their agency and of their own volition had partaken of the fruit, of which they were commanded not to eat; thus they had become subject to the law of Satan. In that disobedience, God was now free to visit upon them a judgment. They were to learn that besides God being a merciful Father, he is also a just Father, and when they broke the law they were subject to the receiving of a penalty and so they were cast out of that beautiful garden. They were visited by all the vicissitudes to which mortals from that time since have been heir. They were to learn that by their disobedience they received the penalty of a just judgment. They were forced to earn their bread by the sweat of their brow, for now they had become mortals…Pain, misery, death, all now came in their wake, but with that pain, quite like our own experiences from that time to this, there came knowledge and understanding that could never have been gained except by pain…Besides the Fall having had to do with Adam and Eve, causing a change to come over them, that change affected all human nature, all of the natural creations, all of the creation of animals, plants—all kinds of life were changed. The earth itself became subject to death. … How it took place no one can explain, and anyone who would attempt to make an explanation would be going far beyond anything the Lord has told us. But a change was wrought over the whole face of the creation, which up to that time had not been subject to death. From that time henceforth all in nature was in a state of gradual dissolution until mortal death was to come, after which there would be required a restoration in a resurrected state. 35

Spencer W. Kimball

#1:

“The Gods organized the earth of materials at hand, over which they had control and power. This truth is absolute. A million educated folk might speculate and determine in their minds that the earth came into being by chance. The truth remains. The earth was made by the Gods…opinions do not change that. The Gods organized and gave life to man and placed him on the earth. This is absolute. It cannot be disproved. A million brilliant minds might conjecture otherwise, but it is still true.” 36

#2:

“God has given us a plan. He has sent us all to earth to obtain bodies and to gain experience and growth. He anticipated the fall of Adam and Eve and the consequent change in their mortal condition and provided his Son Jesus Christ to redeem man from the effects of the fall.” 37

#3:

“Our first parents, Adam and Eve, disobeyed God. By eating the forbidden fruit, they became mortal. Consequently, they and all of their descendants became subject to both mortal and spiritual death (mortal death, the separation of body and spirit; and spiritual death the separation of the spirit from the presence of God and death as pertaining to the things of the spirit). In order for Adam to regain his original state (to be in the presence of God), an atonement for this disobedience was necessary. In God’s divine plan, provision was made for a redeemer to break the bonds of death and, through the resurrection, make possible the reunion of the spirits and bodies of all persons who had dwelt on earth…’For as in Adam all die, even so in Christ shall all be made alive.’ (1 Corinthians 15:22)” 38

#4:

“As in Adam all die, so in Christ shall all be made alive. Adam and Eve transgressed a law and were responsible for a change that came to all their posterity, that of mortality. Could it have been the different food which made the change? Somehow blood, the life-giving element in our bodies, replaced the finer substance which coursed through their bodies before. They and we became mortal, subject to illness, pains, and even the physical dissolution called death.” 39

Ezra Taft Benson

More recently one of our Church educators published what he purports to be a history of the Church’s stand on the question of organic evolution.  His thesis challenges the integrity of a prophet of God.  He suggests that Joseph Fielding Smith published his work “Man: His Origin and Destiny,” against the counsel of the First Presidency and his own Brethren.  This writer’s interpretation is not only inaccurate, but it runs counter to the testimony of Elder Mark E. Peterson, who wrote this foreword to Elder Smith’s book, a book I would encourage all of you to read:

“…Some of us (members of the Council of the Twelve) urged (Elder Joseph Fielding Smith) to write a book on the creation of the world and the origin of man… The present volume is the result. It is a most remarkable presentation of material from both sources (science and religion) under discussion.  It will fill a great need in the Church and will be particularly invaluable to students who have become confused by the misapplication of information derived from scientific experimentation.”   40

When one understands that the author to which I alluded is an exponent for the theory of organic evolution, his motive in disparaging President Joseph Fielding Smith becomes apparent.  To hold to a private opinion on such matters is one thing, but when one undertakes to publish his views to discredit the work of a prophet, it is a very serious matter.

It is also apparent to all who have the Spirit of God in them that Joseph Fielding Smith’s writings will stand the test of time. 41

“When one understands that the author to whom I allude is an exponent for the theory of organic evolution, his motive in disparaging President Joseph Fielding Smith becomes apparent. To hold to a private opinion on such matters is one thing, but when one undertakes to publish his views to discredit the work of a prophet, it is a very serious matter. It is also apparent to all who have the Spirit of God in them that Joseph Fielding Smith’s writings will stand the test of time.” 42

“I know one noble father who reviews with his children regularly what they have been taught, and if they have been taught any falsehoods; then the children and the father together research out the truth…If your children are taught untruths on evolution in the public schools or even in our Church schools, provide them with a copy of President Joseph Fielding Smith’s excellent rebuttal in his book Man, His Origin and Destiny.” 43

“We have not been using the Book of Mormon as we should. Our homes are not as strong unless we are using it to bring our children to Christ. Our families may be corrupted by worldly trends and teachings unless we know how to use the book to expose and combat the falsehoods in socialism, organic evolution, rationalism, humanism, and so forth.” 44

“As a watchman on the tower, I feel to warn you that one of the chief means of misleading our youth and destroying the family unit is our educational institutions. There is more than one reason why the Church is advising our youth to attend colleges close to their homes where institutes of religion are available. It gives the parents the opportunity to stay close to their children, and if they become alerted and informed, these parents can help expose some of the deceptions of men like Sigmund Freud, Charles Darwin, John Dewey, John Keynes, and others. Today there are much worse things that can happen to a child than not getting a full education. In fact, some of the worst things have happened to our children while attending colleges led by administrators who wink at subversion and amorality.” 45

“But it is the living prophet who really upsets the world. “Even in the Church,” said President Spencer W. Kimball, “many are prone to garnish the sepulchres of yesterday’s prophets and mentally stone the living ones” [53]. Why? Because the living prophet gets at what we need to know now, and the world prefers that prophets either be dead or mind their own business. Some so-called experts of political science want the prophet to keep still on politics. Some would-be authorities on evolution want the prophet to keep still on evolution. And so the list goes on and on.Prophet, How we respond to the words of a living prophet when he tells us what we need to know, but would rather not hear, is a test of our faithfulness.” [54]

Sixth: The prophet does not have to say “Thus saith the Lord” to give us scripture. Sometimes there are those who haggle over words. They might say the prophet gave us counsel, but that we are not obligated to follow it unless he says it is a commandment. But the Lord says of the Prophet Joseph, “Thou shalt give heed unto all his words and commandments which he shall give unto you” [55]. . . . Said Brigham Young, “I have never yet preached a sermon and sent it out to the children of men, that they may not call scripture” [56]. [57]

“Sometimes, from behind the pulpit, in our classrooms, in our council meetings, and in our Church publications, we hear, read, or witness things that do not square with the truth. . . . Now, do not let this serve as an excuse for your own wrongdoing. The Lord is letting the wheat and the tares mature before He fully purges the Church. He is also testing you to see if you will be misled. The devil is trying to deceive the very elect.

Let me give you a crucial key to help you avoid being deceived. It is this-learn to keep your eye on the prophet. He is the Lord’s mouthpiece and the only man who can speak for the Lord today. Let his inspired counsel take precedence. Let his inspired words be a basis for evaluating the counsel of all lesser authorities. Then live close to the Spirit so you may know the truth of all things.” [58]

Howard W. Hunter

“The Old Testament unfolds the story of the creation of the earth and mankind by God. Should we now disregard this account and modernize the creation according to the theories of the modernists? Can we say there was no Garden of Eden or an Adam and Eve? Because modernists now declare the story of the flood is unreasonable and impossible, should we disbelieve the account of Noah and the flood as related in the Old Testament? Let us examine what the Master said when the disciples came to him as he sat on the Mount of Olives. They asked him to tell them of the time of his coming and of the end of the world. Jesus answered: “But of that day and hour knoweth no man, no, not the angels of heaven, but my Father only. But as the days of Noe were, so shall also the coming of the Son of man be. For as in the days that were before the flood they were eating and drinking, marrying and giving in marriage, until the day that Noe entered into the ark, and knew not until the flood came, and took them all away; so shall also the coming of the Son of man be.” [59]. In this statement the Master confirmed the story of the flood without modernizing it. Can we accept some of the statements of the Lord as being true and at the same time reject others as being false? When Martha heard that Jesus was coming, she went out to meet him, and they discussed the matter of the death of her brother and the resurrection. Jesus said to her, “I am the resurrection, and the life: he that believeth in me, though he were dead, yet shall he live.” [60]. Both of these statements, the one regarding Noah and the fact of the flood and the one in which he declared himself to be the resurrection and the life, were made by the Lord. How can we believe one and not the other? How can we modernize the story of the flood, or refer to it as a myth, and yet cling to the truth of the other? How can we modernize the Bible and still have it be a guiding light to us and a vital influence in our beliefs? There are those who declare it is old-fashioned to believe in the Bible. Is it old-fashioned to believe in Jesus Christ, the Son of the Living God? Is it old-fashioned to believe in his atoning sacrifice and the resurrection? If it is, I declare myself to be old-fashioned and the Church to be old-fashioned. In great simplicity, the Master taught the principles of life eternal and lessons that bring happiness to those with the faith to believe.” [61]

Gordon B. Hinckley

“When I was a college student there were many discussions on the question of organic evolution. I took classes in geology and biology and heard the whole story of Darwinism as it was then taught. I wondered about it. I thought much about it. But I did not let it sway me, for I read what the scriptures said about our origins and our relationship to God.” [62]

“None of us . . . knows enough. The learning process is an endless process. We must read, we must observe, we must assimilate, and we must ponder that to which we expose our minds. I believe in evolution, not organic evolution, as it is called, but in the evolution of the mind, the heart, and the soul of man. I believe in improvement. I believe in growth.” [63]

Note: President Hinckley reviewed the manuscript for The Teachings of Ezra Taft Benson which contains the following statements. See preface to The Teachings of Ezra Taft Benson). The following statements should not be construed to be statements made by President Hinkley as they were only “reviewed” by him.

“We have not been using the Book of Mormon as we should. Our homes are not as strong unless we are using it to bring our children to Christ. Our families may be corrupted by worldly trends and teachings unless we know how to use the book to expose and combat the falsehoods in socialism, organic evolution, rationalism, humanism, and so forth.” [64]

“As a watchman on the tower, I feel to warn you that one of the chief means of misleading our youth and destroying the family unit is our educational institutions. There is more than one reason why the Church is advising our youth to attend colleges close to their homes where institutes of religion are available. It gives the parents the opportunity to stay close to their children, and if they become alerted and informed, these parents can help expose some of the deceptions of men like Sigmund Freud, Charles Darwin, John Dewey, John Keynes, and others. Today there are much worse things that can happen to a child than not getting a full education. In fact, some of the worst things have happened to our children while attending colleges led by administrators who wink at subversion and amorality.” [65]

“I know one noble father who reviews with his children regularly what they have been taught, and if they have been taught any falsehoods; then the children and the father together research out the truth…If your children are taught untruths on evolution in the public schools or even in our Church schools, provide them with a copy of President Joseph Fielding Smith’s excellent rebuttal in his book Man, His Origin and Destiny.” [66]

“Today, students are subjected in their textbooks and classroom lectures to a subtle propaganda that there is a ‘natural’ or rational explanation to all causes and events. Such a position removes the need for faith in God.” [67]

“But it is the living prophet who really upsets the world. ‘Even in the Church,’ . . . . Why? Because the living prophet gets at what we need to know now, and the world prefers that prophets either be dead or mind their own business. . . . Some would-be authorities on evolution want the prophet to keep still on evolution. . . . How we respond to the words of a living prophet when he tells us what we need to know, but would rather not hear, is a test of our faithfulness.” [68]

The gospel can be viewed from two perspectives. In the broadest sense, the gospel embraces all truth, all light, all revealed knowledge to mankind. In a more restrictive sense, the gospel means the doctrine of the Fall, the consequences of the fall of man that brought into the world physical and spiritual death, the atonement of Jesus Christ which brings to pass immortality and eternal life, and the ordinances of salvation. [69]

We all need to take a careful inventory of our performance and also the performance of those over whom we preside to be sure that we are teaching the “great plan of the Eternal God” to the Saints. Are we accepting and teaching what the revelations tell us about the Creation, Adam and the fall of man, and redemption from that fall through the atonement of Christ? [70]

I am pleased to report, my brethren, that there is harmony, there is total unity, among the General Authorities and among Church officers and leaders throughout the world wherever the work is organized.   46

Thomas S. Monson

“Frame your life with faith. Amidst the confusion of the times, the conflicts of conscience, and the turmoil of daily living, an abiding faith becomes an anchor to our lives…I am old-fashioned enough to believe in God; to believe in the dignity and potential of His creature, man; and I am realistic, not idealistic, enough to know that I am not alone in these feelings…

…Listen to the truth taught to us in the first book of Moses, called Genesis: ‘God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness…So God created man in his own image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them. And God blessed them.’ [71]. Created in the image of God. We cannot sincerely hold this conviction without experiencing a profound sense of strength and power…

…During the last half century or so, there has been throughout the world a gradual but continual decline in many phases of life. We observe…science without humanity, knowledge without character, [and] politics without principle.

…I propose to stay with my faith…I grant that I cannot explain the miracles of the Bible, and I do not attempt to do so, but I accept God’s word. I wasn’t with Joseph Smith, but I believe him. My faith did not come to me through science, and I will not permit so-called science to destroy it. When I change my mind about God and His work, only the inspiration of God will change it.” [72]

Darwinist and Neo-Darwinist

William Bradshaw

Pronouncements by the First Presidency have set forth in general terms of the LDS belief in the divine nature of creation, including man. With respect to the particulars of man’s origin, and the interface with scientific principles, statements by LDS authorities and members past and present reflect a wide diversity of viewpoints. [73]

David H. Bailey

Some LDS church authorities, mostly in the 19th and early 20th century, have taught literal readings of Genesis, but by no means have LDS leaders been unanimous in this regard. Brigham Young, James E. Talmage, John A. Widtsoe, B. H. Roberts and David O. McKay, among others, all argued for a creation over eons of time in keeping with modern science. [74]

Supporting Statements

A. Theodore Tuttle

These false ideas have run counter to the truth of the Prophet’s teachings.  Unfortunately, they have been far more popular   judging from the numbers of people who have believed them.  Mistakenly, these theories have been widely accepted as fact and have blinded many people because they seem to have an aura of some kind of science about them.

The theory of organic evolution, popularized by Darwin, has deceived even the members of this Church.  Unfortunately, in spite of a multitude of irrefutable facts to the contrary, it still continues today with weakened, though widespread, influence. 47


  1. Mormon 8:38
  2. 2 Nephi 28:14
  3. Joseph Smith, Teachings of the Prophet Joseph Smith, selected and arranged by Joseph Fielding Smith [Salt Lake City: Deseret Book Co., 1976], 197.
  4. Joseph Smith, Teachings of the Prophet Joseph Smith, Section Five 1842-43, p.252
  5. Brigham Young, Journal of Discourses, 11:122-123
  6. Brigham Young, Journal of Discourses, 4:217-218
  7. John Taylor, Mediation and Atonement, 163-165
  8. Lorenzo Snow, Journal of Discourses, 26 vols. [London: Latter-day Saints’ Book Depot, 1854-1886], 20: 363 – 364
  9. Joseph F. Smith, Gospel Doctrine, 25
  10. Course of Study For Priests, 1910, under the subject, “The Creation of Man”
  11. George Albert Smith, Conference Reports, October 1925, p. 33
  12. George Albert Smith, The Teachings of George Albert Smith, 14
  13. George Albert Smith, Conference Report, April 1905, p. 61
  14. President George Albert Smith, Conference Report, April 1946, p. 183
  15. George Albert Smith, The Teachings of George Albert Smith, edited by Robert McIntosh and Susan McIntosh [Salt Lake City: Bookcraft, 1996], p. 20
  16. George Albert Smith, Conference Reports, April 1905, p. 61
  17. “The World Needs to Be Saved from Dominating Animal Instincts,” Instructor 97:181-82, June 1962
  18. Genesis 1:24
  19. Moses 3:17
  20. President David O. McKay, “Some Fundamental Objectives of a Church University”, BYU Faculty Workshop, September 17, 1954. Published in Deseret News, 25 Sept. 1954
  21. Joseph Fielding Smith, Doctrines of Salvation, 1:102
  22. Joseph Fielding Smith, Doctrines of Salvation, Volume 1, p. 108
  23. Joseph Fielding Smith, Doctrines of Salvation, 1:119-120
  24. Joseph Fielding Smith, Doctrines of Salvation, 1:142
  25. Joseph Fielding Smith, Doctrines of Salvation, 1:141
  26. Joseph Fielding Smith, Man, His Origin and Destiny, 5
  27. Joseph Fielding Smith, Doctrines of Salvation, 1:143
  28. Joseph Fielding Smith, Doctrines of Salvation, 1:143
  29. Joseph Fielding Smith, Doctrines of Salvation, 3:289-290
  30. Introduction to Philosophy, by Dr. Friedrich Paulsen, pp. 159-160
  31. Joseph Fielding Smith, Man, His Origin and Destiny, p. 83
  32. Joseph Fielding Smith, Answers to Gospel Questions, 5: 112
  33. Joseph Fielding Smith, Doctrines of Salvation, 1:140
  34. Joseph Fielding Smith, Man, His Origin and Destiny, 184-185
  35. President Joseph Fielding Smith, Conference Report, October 1970, 5
  36. Moses 3:7
  37. Harold B. Lee, “First Presidency Message: Find the Answers in the Scriptures,” Ensign, Dec. 1972, 2
  38. Harold B. Lee, Stand Ye In Holy Places, Salt Lake City: Deseret Book Company, 1975. p. 73
  39. Harold B. Lee, Teachings of Presidents of the Church: Harold B. Lee, 2000, p. 20
  40. Spencer W. Kimball, “Absolute Truth”, Ensign, September 1978, p. 3
  41. Spencer W. Kimball, The Teachings of Spencer W. Kimball, p. 25
  42. 1 Corinthians 15:22
  43. Spencer W. Kimball, The Teachings of Spencer W. Kimball, p. 15
  44. Spencer W. Kimball, The Teachings of Spencer W. Kimball, p. 44
  45. Spencer W. Kimball, “Absolute Truth”, Ensign, September 1978, p. 3
  46. Spencer W. Kimball, The Teachings of Spencer W. Kimball, 68
  47. Mark E. Petersen, Quoted in Joseph Fielding Smith, Man: His Origin and Destiny, Foreword
  48. Ezra Taft Benson, This Nation Shall Endure, p. 26
  49. Ezra Taft Benson, God, Family, Country: Our Three Great Loyalties, p. 227
  50. Ezra Taft Benson, The Teachings of Ezra Taft Benson, 60-61
  51. Ezra Taft Benson, The Teachings of Ezra Taft Benson, 307
  52. Instructor, 95:257
  53. Ezra Taft Benson, The Teachings of Ezra Taft Benson, p. 140
  54. D&C 21:4
  55. Journal of Discourses, 26 vols. [London: Latter-day Saints’ Book Depot], 13:95
  56. Ezra Taft Benson, Fourteen Fundamentals in Following the Prophet, BYU devotional, February 26, 1980
  57. Teachings of Ezra Taft Benson, p. 134
  58. Matt. 24:36–39
  59. John 11:25
  60. Howard W. Hunter, That We Might Have Joy, p. 23
  61. Gordon B. Hinckley, Faith: The Essence of True Religion, p. 18
  62. Gordon B. Hinckley, Teachings of Gordon B. Hinckley, p. 298
  63. Ezra Taft Benson, The Teachings of Ezra Taft Benson, 60-61
  64. Ezra Taft Benson, The Teachings of Ezra Taft Benson, 307
  65. Ezra Taft Benson, God, Family, Country: Our Three Great Loyalties, p. 227
  66. Ezra Taft Benson, Teachings of Ezra Taft Benson, p. 320
  67. Ezra Taft Benson, The Teachings of Ezra Taft Benson, p. 140
  68. Ezra Taft Benson, The Teachings of Ezra Taft Benson [Salt Lake City: Bookcraft, 1988], 30
  69. Ezra Taft Benson, The Teachings of Ezra Taft Benson [Salt Lake City: Bookcraft, 1988], 28 – 29
  70. Genesis 1:26–28
  71. Thomas S. Monson, “Decisions Determine Destiny”, CES Fireside for Young Adults, November 6, 2005
  72. Biology 100 Syllabus, p. 269, BYU, 1992 William Bradshaw—Instructor
  73. David H. Bailey

References:

  1. Teachings of Ezra Taft Benson, p. 134
  2. Mormon 8:38
  3. 2 Nephi 28:14
  4. Joseph Smith, Teachings of the Prophet Joseph Smith, selected and arranged by Joseph Fielding Smith [Salt Lake City: Deseret Book Co., 1976], 197./ref]

    The world has had a fair trial for six thousand years; the Lord will try the seventh thousand Himself; 48Joseph Smith, Teachings of the Prophet Joseph Smith, Section Five 1842-43, p.252

  5. Brigham Young, Journal of Discourses, 11:122-123
  6. Brigham Young, Journal of Discourses, 4:217-218
  7. John Taylor, Mediation and Atonement, 163-165
  8. Lorenzo Snow, Journal of Discourses, 26 vols. [London: Latter-day Saints’ Book Depot, 1854-1886], 20: 363 – 364
  9. Joseph F. Smith, Gospel Doctrine, 25
  10. Course of Study For Priests, 1910, under the subject, “The Creation of Man”
  11. George Albert Smith, Conference Reports, October 1925, p. 33
  12. George Albert Smith, The Teachings of George Albert Smith, 14
  13. George Albert Smith, Conference Report, April 1905, p. 61
  14. President George Albert Smith, Conference Report, April 1946, p. 183
  15. George Albert Smith, The Teachings of George Albert Smith, edited by Robert McIntosh and Susan McIntosh [Salt Lake City: Bookcraft, 1996], p. 20/ref]

    No matter if scientists and great men of the world shall proclaim that we have evolved from the lower order of animals, the witness of the Spirit to you, my brethren and sisters, is that you are the offspring of the Lord . . . 49George Albert Smith, Conference Reports, April 1905, p. 61

  16. “The World Needs to Be Saved from Dominating Animal Instincts,” Instructor 97:181-82, June 1962
  17. President David O. McKay, “Some Fundamental Objectives of a Church University”, BYU Faculty Workshop, September 17, 1954. Published in Deseret News, 25 Sept. 1954
  18. Joseph Fielding Smith, Doctrines of Salvation, 1:102
  19. Joseph Fielding Smith, Doctrines of Salvation, Volume 1, p. 108
  20. Joseph Fielding Smith, Doctrines of Salvation, 1:119-120
  21. Joseph Fielding Smith, Doctrines of Salvation, 1:142
  22. Joseph Fielding Smith, Doctrines of Salvation, 1:141
  23. Joseph Fielding Smith, Man, His Origin and Destiny, 5
  24. Joseph Fielding Smith, Doctrines of Salvation, 1:143
  25. Joseph Fielding Smith, Doctrines of Salvation, 1:143
  26. Joseph Fielding Smith, Doctrines of Salvation, 3:289-290
  27. Introduction to Philosophy, by Dr. Friedrich Paulsen, pp. 159-160
  28. Joseph Fielding Smith, Man, His Origin and Destiny, p. 83
  29. Joseph Fielding Smith, Answers to Gospel Questions, 5: 112
  30. Joseph Fielding Smith, Doctrines of Salvation, 1:140
  31. Joseph Fielding Smith, Man, His Origin and Destiny, 184-185
  32. General Conference, October 1970
  33. Harold B. Lee, “First Presidency Message: Find the Answers in the Scriptures,” Ensign, Dec. 1972, 2
  34. Harold B. Lee, Stand Ye In Holy Places, Salt Lake City: Deseret Book Company, 1975. p. 73
  35. Harold B. Lee, Teachings of Presidents of the Church: Harold B. Lee, 2000, p. 20
  36. Spencer W. Kimball, “Absolute Truth”, Ensign, September 1978, p. 3
  37. Spencer W. Kimball, The Teachings of Spencer W. Kimball, p. 25
  38. Spencer W. Kimball, The Teachings of Spencer W. Kimball, p. 15
  39. Spencer W. Kimball, “Absolute Truth”, Ensign, September 1978, p. 3, as quoted in The Teachings of Spencer W. Kimball, p. 44)

    #5:

    “When Adam intentionally and wisely partook of the forbidden fruit in the Garden of Eden, he brought upon all of us, his descendants, two deaths-the physical or “mortal death,” and the spiritual death or the banishment from the presence of the Lord.” 50Spencer W. Kimball, The Teachings of Spencer W. Kimball, 68

  40. Mark E. Peterson, foreword, Man: His Origin and Destiny,” Salt Lake City, Deseret Book Company, 1954, p. v.
  41. President Ezra Taft Benson, BYU Twelve‑Stake Fireside, March 28, 1976
  42. Ezra Taft Benson, This Nation Shall Endure, p. 26
  43. Ezra Taft Benson, God, Family, Country: Our Three Great Loyalties, p. 227
  44. Ezra Taft Benson, The Teachings of Ezra Taft Benson, 60-61
  45. Ezra Taft Benson, The Teachings of Ezra Taft Benson, 307
  46. General Conference, October 1985
  47. A. Theodore Tuttle, BYU Speeches of the Year, 1971

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